And see the calendar pages on how a triangle pattern appeared on the sun on March 14 2012 when there was a 999 (666 upside-down) grand trine triangle astrology pattern, after the March 4 election of Putin the Antichrist in Russia. Does Putin the Antichrist 666 have power over the sun? Revelation 13:13 (King James version) on the Antichrist: "And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men." Solar flares? Putin was reelected as Russian President on March 4 2012, and 2 days later March 6 the sun sent a solar flare towards earth. See this page on Putin's connection to Ra the Egyptian sun deity. And the Cold War appears to be returning, with Putin returned as Russian President, a Russian General having made threats in May 2012 of a nuclear strike against NATO ABM Anti Ballistic Missile sites being deployed in Eastern Europe. Revelation 13:13 (King James version): "And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men." So could Revelation 13:13 be about Putin (or North Korea) launching a nuclear missile strike on Europe or the U.S., starting World War 3 in the future? Or could this be about Putin causing giant solar flares to hit the earth? 

It’s hard prepping on limited funds especially with young children, believe me I know. Every two weeks when I get groceries I take an extra $20 and get basic staples to store in my emergency pantry. It doesn’t seem like much but it adds up especially If you use it a Aldis, shop n save, etc. Then when I have extra cash I use it on the other important things besides food. Just keep going your doin a lot better than most. Your kids will thank you for it. 🙂
Book print ads| Online shopping | Matrimonial | Astrology | Jobs | Tech Community | Property | Buy car | Bikes in India | Free Classifieds | Send money to India | Used Cars | Restaurants in Delhi | Remit to India | Buy Mobiles | Listen Songs | News | TimesMobile | Real Estate Developers | Restaurant Deals in Delhi | Car Insurance | Gadgets Now | Free Business Listings | CouponDunia | Remit2India | Techradar | AliveAR | Getsmartapp App | ETMoney Finance App | Feedback | Auto

A number of personal finance bloggers have engaged in a good discussion of The Matter That Consumes Us All at the thread at the Hope to Prosper Blog relating to my guest post titled The Economic Crisis Is the Best Thing That Ever Happened to Us. Of particular import is an exchange between the blogger Roshawn @ Watson Inc. and me, set forth below: Roshawn @ Watson Inc: Okay Rob, Your article has intrigued me. My immediate inclination is the same as Bret: cool concept but applying it…
(13) Earthquakes and Tidal waves. There could be steadily increasing earthquakes and volcanoes in 2018 - 2019. Especially after the CERN LHC was turned on again at higher power in 2015. There is also a volcano in the Canary Islands off Africa that could collapse in a few years, producing a giant tidal wave that could hit the coasts of Africa, Spain and Portugal, the U.S. East Coast, and the Carribean; see this page on King James Bible Code matrices on it. Another place there could be a giant tidal wave is from an undersea earthquake fault off the Northwest U.S., that could have a magnitude 9 earthquake causing a mega tsunami hitting Northern California, Oregon, Washington State, British Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, and Japan. In June 2005 there were Northern California earthquakes near that under water fault zone, off Northern California and Oregon and Washington State, that brings up the possibility of a giant tidal wave occurring there, or the San Andreas fault could slip in Southern California or Northern California, hitting hard Southern California and Los Angeles or San Francisco.
You always have the choice to experience our sites without personalized advertising based on your web browsing activity by visiting the DAA’s Consumer Choice page, the NAI's website, and/or the EU online choices page, from each of your browsers or devices. To avoid personalized advertising based on your mobile app activity, you can install the DAA’s AppChoices app here. You can find much more information about your privacy choices in our privacy policy. 

Even if you choose not to have your activity tracked by third parties for advertising services, you will still see non-personalized ads on our site.
Je me suis récemment lancé dans le courtage en ligne avec l’intention de ne pas me casser la tête mais je me retrouve bien embêté parce qu’il y a plusieurs FNB ; certains suivent le marché américain, d’autres suivent le marché canadien, certains doublent un certain marché, etc. Bref, je me demandais s,il existait une ressource qui fait état des différents FNB disponibles et de leurs caractéristiques. Je connais Vanguard mais quand je vais sur leur site internet, je me sens comme quand je lis un livre en cantonnais, c’est plutôt rébarbatif. Y aurait-il un blogueur ou un site internet qui vulgariserait les différentes caractéristiques des FNB?
It’s my feeling that we are still in the midst of this crisis, and haven’t seen the worst of it, but it will turn around over the next couple of years. In terms of the bottoming out, if I were looking just at the aspects I’d have to say as an astrologer that the worst still will be the end of December into January when Pluto hits that 1 degree mark. And again when Pluto retrogrades back to that point at different points in 2009. However, as a psychic, I also know that charts are not always 100 accurate, so timing isn’t always exact because of this, and the intense urgency about the market I felt back in September has abated. I’m not sure if this is because we’re already in it, and I’ve gotten used to the energy, or if we really have seen the biggest drop we’re going to feel by comparison of where it was to begin with.
Analysts and investment bankers worked very closely together.  Whenever a company was trying to raise capital, the investment bankers made sure their research firms would put favorable ratings on stocks.  This led to companies having favorable ratings even though the companies was in serious financial trouble.  In some cases analysts had favorable ratings on stock less than a month before a company filed for chapter 11. 

Shown below are charts for Tokyo Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange (originally the Royal Stock Exchange under Queen Elizabeth I), FTSE and Ireland. All these charts are calculated with the complete family tree of modern asteroids, dwarf planets and other objects which are related to the originals – Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Software provided by Solar Fire.

I have the overwhelming feeling that California is going to have a mass earthquake that will split the state not just in the San Francisco area but in Los Angeles as well. I’m a native of the state and the last time I went back to visit family, I could hardly wait to leave. If there is an earthquake in China, I predict it will start a ripple effect. Had this feeling for 2 years now. Hope I’m wrong.
Unfortunately, I have not been able to get a copy of his prophetic texts called the Govinda Vakyas. I don’t think they are published in English and there is very little about his prophecies anywhere. Is this the seer who envisaged the world turning upside down with the moon and planets in new places. In the age he foresees babies being able to speak to their mothers and temples coming to life? He talks of a messiah too I think. As I say, unfortunately, I do not have enough information to make a proper comment. Please feel free to add another comment about this.
As I was looking at the NYSE chart – I was a little surprised to realize that transiting Neptune was making an opposition to the natal Mars and the transiting Moon was about to light that puppy up. Transiting Jupiter was also opposing the Sun. And as you can see transiting Uranus was hitting the cusp of the 9th house right at the midpoint between the natal Moon and Saturn. All that and the fast moving South Node and Venus and Sun were starting to conjunct the natal Pluto. None of that seemed good. Traditionally, the big falls happen in the fall. So I was a little surprised to see so many activating aspects that looked negative. I was a bit worried because I really figured a big crash would happen in the fall of 2019 so I looked for reiteration in the US Constitution Signing Chart. In fact I spent the rest of the night looking at patterns in both the US CS chart and the NYSE chart. The 1929 chart seemed like it showed up more in the US CS chart then in the NYSE exchange chart. It was in both but the aspects were not very exact in the NYSE exchange chart which worried me a bit. As you can see above I have a different chart for the stock market then the rectified one I put up the other night. I found an alternative time online and it seems to time out a lot better. In this new chart Uranus was right on the cusp of the 8th/9th over the last couple of days and made more sense in the 1929 chart.
This is a time for contemplation; reflect on the wealth you have and keep it. Don’t gamble it away. Indeed, to describe the present scenario, it would be an insult to call it a market. It’s much more a casino. And this is where Warren Buffett’s warnings become important. It’s not so much Warren Buffett’s predictions for 2018 that count. Buffett tends to make longer-term analyses. For example, his latest major prediction is that the Dow Jones could hit 1,000,000 points in 2118. That’s well over 40 times the current number.

Les frais de gestion sont la majeure source de revenu du conseiller financier. Personnellement, il a tout intérêt à vous conseiller des fonds avec des frais de gestion élevés, et tout intérêt à vous déconseiller les fonds indiciels qui ne permettent pas au planificateur de prendre une partie de vos profits sous forme de frais de gestion. Si vous voulez vraiment travailler avec un planificateur financier, assurez-vous qu’il soit fiduciaire. Les planificateur financier fiduciaire travaille différemment et mettent les intérêts de leur client avant leur propres intérêts personnels.
At Armageddon, World War 3, of Revelation 16, there is a great nuclear war, I think started by Putin around 2018-2020. The Antichrist is defeated by the returned Christ, as described in Revelation 19. The returned Christ (possibly returning in 2019-2020) with his armies (of aliens and UFOs) may actually be an invasion of earth by aliens in UFOs, read Revelation 19 and it sounds like that. A reason for invading earth may be that the aliens are concerned about global warming and earth's environment, refer to Revelation 11:18 "shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth". And the New Jerusalem of Revelation 21 could be a giant alien city that comes down to earth after the alien invasion. Revelation 21 and 22 seem to be describing the reorganizing of earth by aliens. So Christ would be lead alien. And Nostradamus prophecies also prophesied alien invasion of earth and human genetics DNA modified for immortality, see this page.

After reading this book, you’ll have the chance to start actualizing your dreams by trading shares of a company on the stock market.  This book will provide you with all of the tools that you’ll need to get started as a beginning stock market investor, without all of the frills that come with learning how to trade stock through an online course or another type of avenue. 


America, Isis, and Memes: AP Photo/Alex Brandon FOX NEWS "Thanks to the President's leadership, we are rebuilding the military, ISIS is on the run, and we've seen more than 1 million jobs created while the stock market hits all-time highs." VP Mike Pence "The American people know that I could not be more honored to be working side by side with a president who is making America great again." —VIce President MikePence
You’ll feel it now, in a small but important way. Essentially anyone who has factors in Taurus in her Second House of shopping, possessions, income, rent, investments, shares, business, taxation – has the habits of a lifetime to question. For example you may have habitually been a shopaholic who ends up with too much stuff and gives it to charity. That’s going to change. Why? All kinds of reasons. Maybe you are feeling it right now. Or – if you are habitually geared to have low expectations around money, never really anticipating that you’ll be much richer – May and June may alter your thinking on that.
I was reading your prediction yesterday the 23/6/16 it was very interesting and I look at some of your past prediction was so accurate, l am very close to universe and always get what I need most of the time and my dream come true, I and always feels danger beore it happen, I wonder if I have to work on my psychic ability. Yesterday 23/6/16 I ask my brass pendulum about European referendum before the vote was close and it keep on giving me the same answer that Britain will leave EU, I did it three times and it give the same answer then swap to one of my crystal pendulum ask the same question three times and all answer was Yes. So am still shocked that this little magnetic work as well love and light to all
The Roaring Twenties, the decade that followed World War I that led to the crash,[3] was a time of wealth and excess. Building on post-war optimism, rural Americans migrated to the cities in vast numbers throughout the decade with the hopes of finding a more prosperous life in the ever-growing expansion of America's industrial sector.[4] While the American cities prospered, the overproduction of agricultural produce created widespread financial despair among American farmers throughout the decade.[4] This would later be blamed as one of the key factors that led to the 1929 stock market crash.[5]
Early in February, I wrote on my personal Facebook page that on February 11, 2018, there would be a Sun -Jupiter square transit that is connected to the market astrophysics, and, more specifically, the stock market crash 2018. This transit usually brings market depression or reversal of direction in the period starting anywhere between 10 days BEFORE this aspect and a day or so AFTER the aspect. In fact, the October 2008 and 1962 crashes occurred exactly when Sun squared Jupiter.
“The stock market moves in a seasonal cycle that is derived from a calendar that is computed from the orbits of the Earth and the sun,” said Bill Sarubbi (aka Bill Meridian), who uses astrology in his market forecasts as president of predictive analytics-focused Cycles Research Investments, LLC. (His predictions go out to 8,000 subscribers at a cost of $215 per year.) “By adding other relevant cycles such as that of the planet Mars, one will increase their odds of success in market predictions.”

According to data from Equifax in August 2017, deep subprime auto loans -- i.e., loans with an origination VantageScore of 530 or less, on a scale of 300 to 850 -- have hit delinquency rates that hadn’t been seen since 2007. Interestingly enough, when examining the auto market as a whole, no red flags arise in terms of delinquency rates. But if you focus solely on subprime and deep subprime loans, they’ve been deteriorating of late. 


The Anti-Christ will destroy Rome so thoroughly that the seven hills of Rome will be flattened. Interestingly, other psychics , such as Julie McKenzie have recently said that the seven hills of Rome would be levelled. Nostradamus goes on to say that [the Anti-Christ] “will do such a good job that Rome will be threatened by the encroachment of the sea, destroying what is left (page 212, 1989)”. In his quatrain V-86 Nostradamus talks directly about ” Le cite grande par eaux sera vexee” (the great city will be troubled by water, page 213, 1989).
As any scientific work, he starts with an hypothesis, applies examples for validity, and then makes predictions. Are his predictions 100% correct -- no (only 60% correct). But that does not invalidate his ideas. Perhaps it means that the theory is partially correct and needs tweeking; or perhaps it means going back to the drawing board. That is the beauty of science and the scientific approach -- there are no Hollywood endings.
It is not just the uber rish who lose the most. It is the middle class workers. Those of us who have worked hard and survied years of down sizing in larger corporations who will lose a great deal…along with all those who also benifit from our generosity over the years. All the school supply drives, blood drives, holliday food drives to name a few. We try to contribute the amount to our 401’s to earn the companies matching benifits. We are pentalized for taking out our money until we reach the age of 59. Those of us who are to close to retiring don’t have the opportunity to recoup our money. So we will be faced with working to a much older age then we planned. So in reality…while we may be middle income…we don’t have the ability to just put out our money. If we lose a great portion of our 401’s and there is another housing market crash they have managed to chip away yet another chuck of middle imcome households. Sooner or later it will only be the very poor and the very rich! We need a solution to bring back the middle income and a solution for more and more folks to have the opportunity to move beyond lower income! We have done our best to prepare for what life might throw at us short term and long time, but I do believe it is going to be a bummpy ride, so buckle up my prepper friends.

Thank you. You have your IC at 21 Cancer so if your birth time is correct, you have a relative in your family tree who was extremely good with property. No wonder you are curious about Australia’s city house and apartment prices. The cycle we are going into is ‘Lose your illusion” and as everyone in their fifties was born with Neptune (bubbles) in Scorpio in the Eighth House (mortgages) right from May 2018, for many years to come, Uranus will blow those bubbles around and pop a few too. The more unrealistic people have been about what property is worth, the greater the wind machine that drives the bubbles around the country. You’re going to see it most obviously with that older generation as they escape from reality by borrowing and tend to be credit card/mortgage dependent. In your own particular case, what you are waiting for is the North Node to move to 21 Cancer into your Fourth House of apartments and houses. The Node starts to shift at the end of this year. Your IC is, however, dependent on an accurate birth time!
If you really believe the market is headed for an imminent crash, there are all sorts of places you could invest your money. You could move it all into cash, you could buy gold or real estate or for that matter you could even take an aggressive approach and try to capitalize on stocks' carnage by loading up on investments designed to rise when the market falls, such as bear market funds or put options.
Set forth below are links to seven Guest Blog Entries that I wrote on the Valuation-Informed Indexing strategy: 1) A Better and Safer Way to Invest in Stocks, at the Free From Broke site; 2) The Five Big Benefits of Valuation-Informed Indexing, at the Canadian Finance Blog site; 3) Stock Investing Is a Political Act, at the Balance Junkie site; 4) The Coming Revolution in Our Understanding of How Stock Investing Works, at the My Personal Finance Journey site; 5) Are Investing…

I will consider here three diseases that are a threat to mankind: AIDS, Ebola , and Influenza. The virus that causes AIDS, HIV, was discovered in 1983, so we will associate AIDS with the number 83. The galaxy M83 is in the constellation Hydra, which was a multi-headed serpent in mythology that kept growing a new head, each time a head was cut off. This sounds like AIDS, which keeps mutating to allow it to get around any treatment or vaccine. The Hydra was defeated by Hercules, by his nephew Iolaus burning each of the mortal heads as Hercules cut them off, and burying the immortal head under a stone. I wonder if this mythology story could somehow be a clue on how to treat AIDS? Note that the AIDS virus has 9213=111x83 bits of genetic information, so again we see the number 83 again.
I will be writing a monthly column on the dangers of Buy-and-Hold and on our need to move on as a society to promotion of the Valuation-Informed Indexing model at the Balance Junkie site. My first entry there is called The Gene Mauch Rule for Investing Success. Juicy Excerpt: Bull markets are the stock market’s equivalent to baseball winning streaks. During bull markets, the temptation is to get overly excited about stocks, to count the phony and temporary bull market gains as permanent.…
J’ai vécu un peu le même cheminement. Au début de mon parcours, j’investissais dans des fonds communs de placement jusqu’à ce que je réalise que les frais de gestion (3%) sont scandaleux. Puis, je me suis tourné vers le « stock picking ». J’achetais 15-20 titres d’entreprises à travers un compte de courtage en ligne. Certes, ceci nécessitait pas mal de temps et d’énergie pour suivre les titres en question. Plus, je pense qu’il est quasi impossible de battre le rendement du marché de façon constante à long terme. Alors, je me tourne désormais vers les FNB. Le rendement est approximativement le même (sur le long terme), les frais sont très bas et les transactions beaucoup moins nombreuses (3-4 titres à acheter).

The crash followed a speculative boom that had taken hold in the late 1920s. During the latter half of the 1920s, steel production, building construction, retail turnover, automobiles registered, and even railway receipts advanced from record to record. The combined net profits of 536 manufacturing and trading companies showed an increase, in the first six months of 1929, of 36.6% over 1928, itself a record half-year. Iron and steel led the way with doubled gains.[19] Such figures set up a crescendo of stock-exchange speculation that led hundreds of thousands of Americans to invest heavily in the stock market. A significant number of them were borrowing money to buy more stocks. By August 1929, brokers were routinely lending small investors more than two-thirds of the face value of the stocks they were buying. Over $8.5 billion was out on loan,[20] more than the entire amount of currency circulating in the U.S. at the time.[15][21]

Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology suggests that there is evidence the frequency of stock market crashes follows an inverse cubic power law.[15] This and other studies such as Prof. Didier Sornette's work suggest that stock market crashes are a sign of self-organized criticality in financial markets.[16] In 1963, Mandelbrot proposed that instead of following a strict random walk, stock price variations executed a Lévy flight.[17] A Lévy flight is a random walk that is occasionally disrupted by large movements. In 1995, Rosario Mantegna and Gene Stanley analyzed a million records of the S&P 500 market index, calculating the returns over a five-year period.[18] Researchers continue to study this theory, particularly using computer simulation of crowd behaviour, and the applicability of models to reproduce crash-like phenomena.
The Roaring Twenties, the decade that followed World War I that led to the crash,[3] was a time of wealth and excess. Building on post-war optimism, rural Americans migrated to the cities in vast numbers throughout the decade with the hopes of finding a more prosperous life in the ever-growing expansion of America's industrial sector.[4] While the American cities prospered, the overproduction of agricultural produce created widespread financial despair among American farmers throughout the decade.[4] This would later be blamed as one of the key factors that led to the 1929 stock market crash.[5]
The mid-1980s were a time of strong economic optimism. From August 1982 to its peak in August 1987, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) grew from 776 to 2722. The rise in market indices for the 19 largest markets in the world averaged 296 percent during this period. The average number of shares traded on the NYSE(New York Stock Exchange) had risen from 65 million shares to 181 million shares.[26]

J’ai vécu un peu le même cheminement. Au début de mon parcours, j’investissais dans des fonds communs de placement jusqu’à ce que je réalise que les frais de gestion (3%) sont scandaleux. Puis, je me suis tourné vers le « stock picking ». J’achetais 15-20 titres d’entreprises à travers un compte de courtage en ligne. Certes, ceci nécessitait pas mal de temps et d’énergie pour suivre les titres en question. Plus, je pense qu’il est quasi impossible de battre le rendement du marché de façon constante à long terme. Alors, je me tourne désormais vers les FNB. Le rendement est approximativement le même (sur le long terme), les frais sont très bas et les transactions beaucoup moins nombreuses (3-4 titres à acheter).
   This One day crash course on Stock Market will cover the basics to to make you understand what is stock market and how does it operate. This will give the attendees a complete layout on how to analyse the market, the market structure and how has it been framed and developed. The understanding will start from the scratch to End up at a point where you could individually involve with stocks and make better investment decisions.
Il y a tellement de fausses croyances par rapport au courtage en ligne. Un peu à l’image du marché immobilier, on dit que c’est extrêmement risqué d’acheter une maison sans courtier immobilier. À mon avis, une fois bien informé, on peut tout faire soi-même et épargner des milliers de dollars. Il suffit d’y aller progressivement en respectant sa zone de confort.
Meme, Http, and Stock Market: WHO WOULD WIN? A well established subreddit with over 400.000 members One downloadv boi E Meme Exchange - Meme Stock Market Appstronaut Studios Teen r/Memetconomy 406,355 subscribers 698 online INSTALL SUBSCRIBE In-app purchases HOT POSTS ▼ 4.7 u/Noerdy5d We Hit 400k Subscribers! And To Celebrate, We Are Removing Some Of Your Permissions 10 THOUSAND Downloads 292 Casual Similar 153 24 Share

So this is a thing now? Please do not ruin this app its all I have left. via /r/MemeEconomy http://ift.tt/2Dyl64m


So far, the market has gone up in bad news, threat of war; Trump’s saying the stupidest things known to humankind and [is under threat of] getting damn near impeached. The market still goes up because money has nowhere else to go. So stocks are the only game in town. They’re going to go till they blow, and it looks like they’re getting close to blowing.

Page 12a: Is there Life outside Earth in our Solar System - on Mars, Europa, or Titan? Are Flying Saucers and Aliens for real? Men in Black. W56 UFOs and Aliens. The Nazca Lines in Peru, a sign of Alien Visitors? President Obama and Aliens. George Adamski who saw Aliens and UFOs in the 1950s. The missing Flight 370 in 2014, a possible UFO connection?

Rajan turned out to be a party pooper, questioning whether “advances” in the financial sector actually increased, rather than reduced, systemic risk. Former Treasury Secretary Larry Summers called him a Luddite. “…I felt like an early Christian who had wandered into a convention of half-starved lions,” he wrote. But though delivered in genteel academic lingo, his paper was powerful and prescient.


In January 2013, the British media reported that horse meat had been found in some meat products sold by Tesco, along with other retailers, particularly burgers. Prime Minister David Cameron called this "unacceptable", with products showing 29.1% horse meat in the "Value" range burger, which were supposed to be beef.[152][153] It was later revealed in February 2013 that some of Tesco's Everyday Value Spaghetti Bolognese contained 60% horse meat.[154] Tesco withdrew 26 of its products in response, and announced that they were working with authorities and the supplier to investigate the cause of the contamination.[155]

In my last predictions, I said that Shakespeare’s bones would be analyzed to show he’s been poisoned. This has not happened. I also predicted that a kidnap attempt would be attempted on the pope. Wrong on that one I’m sorry to say. I got it right about the launch of new virtual reality games and augmented reality did take huge strides as predicted. You may remember I predicted that a giant squid would make the news. I felt a bit silly even suggesting this but giant squid have made the news and the Russians found something really weird under the ice! Maybe in 2018 she’ll have babies that will march on Washington!
I wrote a Guest Blog Entry re the new Returns-Sequence Reality Checker calculator that appears today at the Consumerism Commentary blog. It's called The Good Side of Stocks' Lost Decade. Juicy Excerpt: The reason why I call the calculator “The Reality Checker” is that it throws doubt on one of our most fundamental beliefs about stock investing — that positive returns are good and that negative returns are bad. It’s not hard to understand why most of us think that. If your stock…
Genuis and DK: Ten dollar bills and twenties’s mainly and some hundred dollar bills in a house safe. good idea: pvc pipe with currency stashed under other pipe, like in the shed. make sure there are end caps to keep bugs out. Lots of canned sardines, spam, salmon, beans, chicken, canned veggies, etc. None of this long term crap that is loaded with sodium and fillers. After I’ve taken money out of my account, more is deposited from retirement/brokerage accounts soon after, and I have to repeat the cycle again. Many can relate to this endless cycle.
Tesco has been targeted by protesters complaining the supermarket chain sells goods made in Israel, with most complaints being about products emanating from Israeli settlements in the West Bank. Protests generally occur when Israeli military operations are being carried out in the Gaza Strip or the West Bank. A protester was arrested at a protest at a shop in Birmingham on 16 August 2014.[161]
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch pioneered several financial innovations that helped lay the foundations of the modern financial system.[34][35][36][37] While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market: the stock market.[38] In the early 1600s the Dutch East India Company (VOC) became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public.[39] As Edward Stringham (2015) notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were usually not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed (Neal, 1997, p. 61)."[40] The Dutch East India Company (founded in the year of 1602) was also the first joint-stock company to get a fixed capital stock and as a result, continuous trade in company stock occurred on the Amsterdam Exchange. Soon thereafter, a lively trade in various derivatives, among which options and repos, emerged on the Amsterdam market. Dutch traders also pioneered short selling – a practice which was banned by the Dutch authorities as early as 1610.[41] Amsterdam-based businessman Joseph de la Vega's Confusion de Confusiones (1688)[42] was the earliest known book about stock trading and first book on the inner workings of the stock market (including the stock exchange).
Though the Trump administration has looked to tariffs to help balance out a huge trade deficit with China, these added costs on aluminum, steel, and potentially other Chinese goods, could come back to haunt businesses and U.S. consumers. As material costs rise as a result of tariffs, businesses have little choice but to pass along these higher costs to consumers. That will likely result in less consumption, and an eventual pullback in spending from businesses, which may lead to a borderline recession.
×